Knowing the Process in Two-Sided PCB Assembly

You are probably familiar with assembling PCB, but do you know the process in two-sided PCB assembly? To start things off, one must ensure that working environment is clean to avoid contamination. Proper humidity as well as high quality components should both be present in double-sided PCB assembly.

Below are the next few steps:

1. Preparing the substrate

An epoxy resin is sprayed or applied on a glass fiber. When the glass fiber is fully covered with epoxy resin, it will be rolled to remove the excess resin. It will also be thinned out to a specific size.

After that, this substrate will be placed in an oven. It will then be cut into panels which will be piled up in layers. Each layer contains copper foils with adhesive. When the layers are done, they’re subjected to very high temperature and pressure for about an hour. By the time this is finished, the layers are solidly bonded.

2. Drilling the holes

Now that you have the panel, the next step for PCB assembly is drilling the holes. Remember that a panel is huge enough that one panel can actually produce several circuit boards. These several panels will be piled up and placed in a CNC machine. CNC machine is responsible in drilling the holes as specified in the board pattern.
PCB AssemblyHoles in PCB are either conductive or non-conductive. For conductive holes, they are plated with copper to ensure that current will flow from one board to another. As for non-conductive holes, they will be covered while the rest of the holes are plated with copper. Sometimes, non-conductive holes are drilled only after the conductive holes are plated.

3. Creating a pattern for the PCB

During this phase in PCB assembly, there is a need to create a mask that will create a pattern for the PCB. This mask will ensure that only the necessary parts are plated with copper while the rest of the board remains untouched.

4. Attaching and plating of contact fingers

Contact fingers refer to the internal connectors plated with gold and copper. They are resistant to wear and tear, corrosion, and high temperature. These contact fingers will be attached to the ends of the substrate. Contact fingers act as a bond to connect the substrate with the PCB. To cover these contact fingers, plate them with tin-lead, nickel, and then gold metals.

5. Reflow

Note that at this point, the exterior of the printed circuit pattern is still prone to corrosion. To resolve this, the entire panel goes through a reflow process where it is subject to a high temperature. This will allow the tin-lead to melt and reflow creating a shiny exterior.

6. Cutting the panels

Remember that panels can create several circuit boards. Once the reflow is done, the panel is cut into individual PCBs. The sides of the board are also smoothened out to create a nice finish.

7. Placement of Components

Now that the PCB is ready, it will pass through different machines. These machines make placing electrical components on the board easier and faster. Some technicians who do their own PCB assembly can manually do the placement themselves. But in cases where the amount of PCB produced is numerous, the use of machines and technology is highly essential.

When the placement phase is done, everything needs to be soldered onto the board. Depending on the amount of boards that need to be soldered, they can be done manually or through the use of a reflow oven.

8. Inspection

Before the products are packaged for delivery, they have to be examined for quality. Through an optical inspection machine, flaws such as solder errors, misplaced components, and shifted boards are easily identified.

Without a doubt, manufacturing double-sided PCBs is quite challenging. Nonetheless, if you’re really serious about making your very own boards, you should keep everything you’ve learned in mind and persevere.

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Going Beyond the Usual Funeral Services

There will be families who would want something out of the ordinary. This is not just about trying to feel avant-garde or fashionable but perhaps, they just want to honor a very unique or artsy person. For these particular requests, thankfully, there are some very distinctive funeral services offered by reputable funeral homes. Here are some of the possibilities that they are posing to their prospective clients.

Asian affair

Topnotch funeral homes should be able to adjust to the needs of their varying clients. Traditional for one culture may be quite different for others. In a Chinese funeral, for example, more variations can be expected. The degree of pomp and the size of the procession will all depend on the wealth of the family. Much of the other details of such a funeral are not that different from a traditional Western funeral. Handkerchiefs, red envelopes, appropriate music, and fake money and other objects to be burned could be added to give it a more authentic Chinese flair.

Other culture-centered funerals

Funeral servicesFuneral services can also accommodate other cultures. A reputable and licensed funeral home will be willing to explore other means of conducting a funeral service. The funeral home can already set things up by conducting research on as many cultures as possible and having contacts that can provide unique props and implementations.


Woodland burial

There are also funeral homes that take unique locations in consideration. For the nature lover, a woodland burial is like giving back to the environment. The reasonable and beautiful alternative to the traditional burial may provide a freer atmosphere. Instead of carved angels and skeletal trees, the burial grounds have a more natural backdrop in the guise of flowers and woodland trees. The place is great for remembering a loved one in. There is an option to either buy a plot of land to bury your deceased loved one in or to scatter the ashes on the grounds. These funeral services may be best put in motion if the deceased had explicitly expressed his desire to be one with nature upon death.

Horse-drawn carriages

A good accompanying service to the woodland burial would be to rent a horse-drawn carriage as a hearse instead of the usual black limo. Some funeral homes offer the option of a carriage for a different type of experience. Add solemn music and gallop into the woodland and you have a serene and very natural journey towards the other life. You can almost imagine your loved one being properly sent off to the life beyond.

Convenient funerals

Some funeral services have to be attended to be believed. Because of people’s growing desire for convenience, seemingly weird funeral arrangements such as a drive through funeral or a webcast funeral had been arranged. For super quick visits and guestbook signing all in the comfort of your own vehicle, there is the drive through funeral. It may take a little bit of sense of humor and a really tight schedule for this to happen. The webcasted funeral seems more plausible due to the need of people to see a friend or family member’s funeral even if they were living in another country.

Other Requests

There are other possible requests that may range from unique to downright strange. So, a lot of funeral homes are prepared to accommodate just about any type of funeral as long as no laws are broken and no ethics have been violated. As far as funerals in the United States are concerned, however, most of the “going beyond” part would be in terms of accommodating unique cultures and beliefs, from being Asian or European to being a nature lover or adventurer.

Author Bio:
Gentry Griffey became the only funeral home to operate on-site crematory. We offer complete funeral services,we pride ourselves on providing high-level, professional service at a very economical value by our professional and licensed staff.